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Astrocyte heterogeneity in the brain: from development to disease

In this review, we focused on astrocyte heterogeneity in terms of their morphological, protein expression and functional aspects, and debate in a historical perspective the diversity encountered in glial rogenitors and how they may reflect mature astrocyte heterogeneity.
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Experience-dependent upregulation of multiple plasticity factors in the hippocampus during early REM sleep

Sleep is beneficial to learning, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY) proposes that the cognitive function of sleep is related to a generalized rescaling of synaptic weights to intermediate levels, due to a passive downregulation of plasticity mechanisms.
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The onset of data-driven mental archeology

How did human consciousness arise, in comparison with that of apes?
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Proliferative Defects and Formation of a Double Cortex in Mice Lacking Mltt4 and Cdh2 in the Dorsal Telencephalon

Here we show that the adherens junction proteins afadin and CDH2 are critical for the control of cell proliferation in the dorsal telencephalon and for the formation of its normal laminar structure.
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Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer’s disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and normal elderly controls

This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment – subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI) - and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
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Local Field Potentials in the Gustatory Cortex Carry Taste Information

We found that the phase and amplitude of multiple LFP frequencies carry information about stimuli, which have specific time courses after stimulus delivery.
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Limiting glutamate transmission in a Vglut2-expressing subpopulation of the subthalamic nucleus is sufficient to cause hyperlocomotion

Our results demonstrate that altering the contribuition of a limited population within the STN is sufficiente to achieve results similar to STN lesions and high-frequecy stimulation, but with fewer side effects.
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Ten research leaders call for policies to build science, and ways to build science into policy.

BRAZIL: Reward quality not quantity
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Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old.
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An investigation of Hebbian phase sequences as assembly graphs

We investigated action potentials recorded from the adult rat hippocampus and neocortex before, during and after novel object exploration (experimental periods).
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Respiration-driven oscillations in the mouse hippocampus

In this study, the authors demonstrate the existence of a previously unrecognized type of neuronal rhythm in the mouse hippocampus that is entrained by respiration. The rhythm is close in frequency to classical theta oscillations but can be distinguished by several features such as amplitude laminar profile, resistance to cholinergic blockers, and differential entrainment of gamma oscillations. This signal is postulated to link olfactory and hippocampal networks for the processing of sensory information.
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Undersampled Critical Branching Processes on Small-World and Random Networks Fail to Reproduce the Statistics of Spike Avalanches

We conclude that undersampled branching-process-like models in these topologies fail to reproduce the statistics of spike avalanches.
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