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OLMa2 cells bidirectionally modulate learning

Here we set out to determine whether selective modulation of OLMα2 cells in the intermediate CA1 affects learning and memory in vivo.
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Memory corticalization triggered by REM sleep: mechanisms of cellular and systems consolidation

This article reviews the plasticity mechanisms triggered by REM sleep, with a focus on the emerging role of kinases and immediate-early genes for the progressive corticalization of hippocampus-dependent memories.
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Theta-Gamma Cross-Frequency Analyses

Brain oscillations of different frequencies can coexist and influence each other. A cross-frequency interaction occurs when a feature from one oscillation (i.e., instantaneous amplitude, phase, or frequency) depends on a feature from another oscillation at a distinct frequency.
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Speech structure links the neural and socio-behavioural correlates of psychotic disorders

We found a canonical correlation linking speech connectedness and i) functional as well as developmentally relevant structural brain markers (degree centrality from resting state functional imaging and cortical gyrification index) ii) psychometric evaluation of thought disorder iii) aspects of cognitive performance (processing speed deficits) and iv) functional outcome in patients.
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Ayahuasca pode ajudar no tratamento de depressão, diz estudo

Um grupo de cientistas brasileiros realizou o primeiro ensaio randomizado com ayahuasca, controlado por placebo, em 29 pacientes com depressão e os resultados são animadores.
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Direct Reprogramming of Adult Human Somatic Stem Cells Into Functional Neurons Using Sox2, Ascl1, and Neurog2

Here, we show that the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), Ascl1 or Neurog2 is sufficient to lineage-convert a small fraction of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into iNs.
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Respiration-Entrained Brain Rhythms Are Global but Often Overlooked

We summarize recent evidence showing that nasal respiration entrains oscillations at the same frequency as breathing in several regions of the rodent brain.
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Callosal Influence on Visual Receptive Fields Has an Ocular, an Orientation-and Direction Bias

One leading hypothesis on the nature of visual callosal connections (CC) is that they replicate features of intrahemispheric lateral connections. However, CC act also in the central part of the binocular visual field.
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Motion contrast in primary visual cortex: a direct comparison of single neuron and population encoding

We analyzed firing rates and phase-locking to low-gamma frequency in single cells and neuronal assemblies. Motion contrast was reflected in all measures but in semi-independent populations.
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Extracting information from the shape and spatial distribution of evoked potentials.

Over 90 years after its first recording, scalp electroencephalography (EEG) remains one ofthe most widely used techniques in human neuroscience research, in particular for the study of event-related potentials (ERPs).
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Subtle Alterations in Spatial Memory Induced by Amyloid Peptides Infusion in Rats

In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a low-dose 15-day long treatment with Ab peptides on spatial and non-spatial strategies of rats tested in the Barnes maze. Ab peptides (0.5 mL/site/day; 30 pmoL solution of Ab1–40:Ab1–42 10:1) or saline were bilaterally infused into the CA1 (on the first treatment day) and intraventricularly (on the following 15 days) in 6-month-old Wistar male rats.
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Specifc Phospholipids Regulate the Acquisition of Neuronal and Astroglial Identities in Post-Mitotic Cells

Embryonic stem cell diferentiation in specifc cell lineages is a major issue in cell biology, and particularly, in regenerative medicine. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential for self-renewal and diferentiation into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
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